TY - JOUR

T1 - Designing steep, sharp patterns on uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces

AU - Perkinson, Joy C.

AU - Aziz, Michael J.

AU - Brenner, Michael P.

AU - Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda

N1 - Funding Information:
This research was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through Harvard Materials Research Science and Engineering Center Grant DMR-1420570 and Division of Mathematical Sciences Grant DMS-1411694. This work was also supported by NSF Grant DMR-1409700 (to J.C.P. and M.J.A.). This work was performed in part at the Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS), a member of the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, which is supported by NSF Grant ECS-0335765. CNS is part of Harvard University. M.P.B. is an Investigator of the Simons Foundation.

PY - 2016/10/11

Y1 - 2016/10/11

N2 - We propose and experimentally test a method to fabricate patterns of steep, sharp features on surfaces, by exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces. We show via theory, simulation, and experiment that the steepest parts of the surface evolve as one-dimensional curves that move in the normal direction at constant velocity. The curves are a special solution to the nonlinear equations that arises spontaneously whenever the initial patterning on the surface contains slopes larger than a critical value; mathematically they are traveling waves (shocks) that have the special property of being undercompressive. We derive the evolution equation for the curves by considering long-wavelength perturbations to the one-dimensional traveling wave, using the unusual boundary conditions required for an undercompressive shock, and we show this equation accurately describes the evolution of shapes on surfaces, both in simulations and in experiments. Because evolving a collection of one-dimensional curves is fast, this equation gives a computationally efficient and intuitive method for solving the inverse problem of finding the initial surface so the evolution leads to a desired target pattern. We illustrate this method by solving for the initial surface that will produce a lattice of diamonds connected by steep, sharp ridges, and we experimentally demonstrate the evolution of the initial surface into the target pattern.

AB - We propose and experimentally test a method to fabricate patterns of steep, sharp features on surfaces, by exploiting the nonlinear dynamics of uniformly ion-bombarded surfaces. We show via theory, simulation, and experiment that the steepest parts of the surface evolve as one-dimensional curves that move in the normal direction at constant velocity. The curves are a special solution to the nonlinear equations that arises spontaneously whenever the initial patterning on the surface contains slopes larger than a critical value; mathematically they are traveling waves (shocks) that have the special property of being undercompressive. We derive the evolution equation for the curves by considering long-wavelength perturbations to the one-dimensional traveling wave, using the unusual boundary conditions required for an undercompressive shock, and we show this equation accurately describes the evolution of shapes on surfaces, both in simulations and in experiments. Because evolving a collection of one-dimensional curves is fast, this equation gives a computationally efficient and intuitive method for solving the inverse problem of finding the initial surface so the evolution leads to a desired target pattern. We illustrate this method by solving for the initial surface that will produce a lattice of diamonds connected by steep, sharp ridges, and we experimentally demonstrate the evolution of the initial surface into the target pattern.

KW - Fib

KW - Ion bombardment

KW - Shock wave

KW - Simulations

KW - Steep structure design

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84991510884&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84991510884&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1609315113

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1609315113

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84991510884

SN - 0027-8424

VL - 113

SP - 11425

EP - 11430

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

IS - 41

ER -