Determination of dual effects of parathyroid hormone on skeletal gene expression in vivo by microarray and network analysis

Xin Li, Hao Liu, Ling Qin, Joseph Tamasi, Marika Bergenstock, Sue Shapses, Jean H M Feyen, Daniel A. Notterman, Nicola C. Partridge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone formation when injected daily but causes severe bone loss with continuous infusion. The mechanism of its paradoxical effects is still elusive. In this study, we compared changes in the gene expression profile in bone induced by intermittent or continuous treatment with three different PTH peptides, PTH-(1-34), -(1-31), and -(3-34), in Sprague-Dawley female rats. PTH-(1-34) regulated numerous genes (∼1,000), but differentially, in both regimes. PTH-(1-31) regulated a similar number of genes in the intermittent regimen but fewer in the continuous regimen, consistent with its less potent catabolic effect. PTH-(3-34) regulated very few genes in both regimes, which suggests the protein kinase C pathway plays a limited role in mediating the dual effects of PTH, whereas the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway appears to predominate. In the intermittent treatment, many genes encoding signaling mediators, transcription factors, cytokines, and proteases/protease inhibitors are regulated rapidly and cyclically with each PTH injection; genes associated with skeletal development show a slowly accruing pattern of expression. With continuous treatment, some genes are regulated from 6 h, and the mRNA levels are sustained with a longer infusion, whereas others show a kinetic decrease and then increase later. Significant up-regulation of genes stimulating osteoclastogenesis in the anabolic regime suggests a provocative and paradoxical theme for the anabolic effect of PTH that a full anabolic response requires a transient up-regulation of genes classically associated with a resorptive response. Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed on the microarray data. A novel signaling network was established that is differentially regulated in the two PTH treatment regimes. Key regulators are suggested to be AREG, CCL2, WNT4, and cAMP-responsive element modulator.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33086-33097
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number45
StatePublished - Nov 9 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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