Determining cephalometric norms for Caucasians and African Americans in Birmingham

Wen Jeng Huang, Reginald W. Taylor, Ananda P. Dasanayake

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to establish age- and sex-specific normative data for Caucasians and African Americans in Birmingham, Ala. Subjects (136) between 6 and 18 years old were included in the study. Chang's method (AF-BF) and 12 other measurements were used as determinates of the skeletal sagittal jaw relationship. All subjects had acceptable facial profiles and Class I occlusion. Subjects were divided into eight subgroups based on race, gender, and age. Differences of mean cephalometric values were tested using parametric and nonparametric statistical tests. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans had greater mean values for all measurements except AFB and AF-BF. More negative values were found for the African Americans in the Wits appraisal. Most measurements were found to decrease with age. These findings support our hypothesis that cephalometric norms should be based on racial, sex, and age differences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)503-512
Number of pages10
JournalAngle Orthodontist
Issue number6
StatePublished - 1998


  • African Americans
  • Caucasians
  • Cephalometric analysis
  • Skeletal discrepancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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