Developing a Standard Set of Patient-centred Outcomes for Adult Oral Health – An International, Cross-disciplinary Consensus

Richeal Ni Riordain, Michael Glick, Shiamaa Shihab Ahmed Al Mashhadani, Krishna Aravamudhan, Jane Barrow, Deborah Cole, James J. Crall, Jennifer E. Gallagher, Jacqui Gibson, Shalika Hegde, Rebekah Kaberry, Elsbeth Kalenderian, Anup Karki, Roger Keller Celeste, Stefan Listl, Stacie N. Myers, Richard Niederman, Tania Severin, Mark W. Smith, W. Murray ThomsonGeorgios Tsakos, Marko Vujicic, Richard G. Watt, Sarah Whittaker, David M. Williams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To develop a minimum Adult Oral Health Standard Set (AOHSS) for use in clinical practice, research, advocacy and population health. Materials and methods: An international oral health working group (OHWG) was established, of patient advocates, researchers, clinicians and public health experts to develop an AOHSS. PubMed was searched for oral health clinical and patient-reported measures and case-mix variables related to caries and periodontal disease. The selected patient-reported outcome measures focused on general oral health, and oral health-related quality of life tools. A consensus was reached via Delphi with parallel consultation of subject matter content experts. Finally, comments and input were elicited from oral health stakeholders globally, including patients/consumers. Results: The literature search yielded 1,453 results. After inclusion/exclusion criteria, 959 abstracts generated potential outcomes and case-mix variables. Delphi rounds resulted in a consensus-based selection of 80 individual items capturing 31 outcome and case-mix concepts. Global reviews generated 347 responses from 87 countries, and the patient/consumer validation survey elicited 129 responses. This AOHSS includes 25 items directed towards patients (including demographics, the impact of their oral health on oral function, a record of pain and oral hygiene practices, and financial implications of care) and items for clinicians to complete, including medical history, a record of caries and periodontal disease activity, and types of dental treatment delivered. Conclusion: In conclusion, utilising a robust methodology, a standardised core set of oral health outcome measures for adults, with a particular emphasis on caries and periodontal disease, was developed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)40-52
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Dental Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2021


  • Oral health
  • Outcome measures
  • Patient outcome assessment
  • Quality of life

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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