Development of a direct metal freeform fabrication technique using CO2 laser welding and milling technology

Doo Sun Choi, S. H. Lee, B. S. Shin, K. H. Whang, Y. A. Song, S. H. Park, H. S. Jee

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Since the first introduction of rapid prototyping in 1986, several techniques have been developed and successfully commercialized in the market. However, most commercial systems currently use resins or waxes as the raw materials. Thus, the limited mechanical strength for functional testing is regarded as an obstacle towards broader application of rapid prototyping techniques. To overcome this problem, direct metal deposition methods are being investigated worldwide for rapid prototyping and even for rapid tooling applications. As a contribution to this development, a fundamental study on a process combination of wire welding technology using CO2 laser radiation with milling was carried out and is reported in this paper. Laser welding enables accurate deposition of metals and the subsequent milling increases the surface quality and accuracy to machining standard. Compared to powder, the use of wire is of advantage in terms of a simple feeding mechanism as well as a higher deposition rate. The main focus of the experimental investigation is to find the basic process characteristics. For this purpose, basic parts were fabricated as a function of process parameters such as laser power, welding speed and bead distance. The microstructure, hardness and tensile strength are then examined as a function of these process parameters. In conclusion, the advantages and disadvantages of this process are discussed in comparison with other direct metal fabrication techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)273-279
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Materials Processing Technology
Issue number1-3
StatePublished - Jun 15 2001
Event5th Asia Pacific Conference on Materials Processing - Seoul, Korea, Republic of
Duration: Jun 25 2001Jun 25 2001


  • Laser welding
  • Metal deposition
  • Metal fabrication
  • Mild steel
  • Rapid prototyping and tooling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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