Development of the Knowledge Related to Oral Health Literacy for Spanish Speakers Scale

Silvia E. Spivakovsky, Ralph V. Katz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The Hispanic population has one of the highest levels of untreated oral disease of any linguistic or ethnic population in the United States. Research examining the factors leading to such outcomes is limited. Since health literacy has been identified as a mediator of health disparities, it is important to identify the most appropriate tool to assess it. The Knowledge Related to Oral Health Literacy model for Spanish speakers (KROHL-S) is an inclusive framework to evaluate oral health knowledge and other modifiable factors at the individual level among the Hispanic population as related to oral health literacy. KROHL-S intends to provide concrete, practical information to help customize interpersonal interactions and educational experiences to individuals’ needs and capabilities. The questionnaire that will allow the creation of the KROHL-S scale consists of orally administered open-ended questions to measure knowledge that is condition specific (caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, tooth loss, and malocclusion) and domain that is knowledge specific (identification of condition, causes, prevention, treatment, general knowledge). Implementation of the KROHL-S framework will provide in depth information that could be shared among health care providers and the creation of patient-centred initiatives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)198-204
Number of pages7
JournalHispanic Health Care International
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2020


  • Spanish
  • index
  • oral health literacy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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