Development (of Walking): 15 Suggestions

Karen E. Adolph, Justine E. Hoch, Whitney G. Cole

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Although a fundamental goal of developmental science is to identify general processes of change, developmental scientists rarely generalize beyond their specific content domains. As a first step toward a more unified approach to development, we offer 15 suggestions gleaned from a century of research on infant walking. These suggestions collectively address the multi-leveled nature of change processes, cascades of real-time and developmental events, the diversity of developmental trajectories, inter- and intraindividual variability, starting and ending points of development, the natural input for learning, and the roles of body, environment, and sociocultural context. We argue that these 15 suggestions are not limited to motor development, and we encourage researchers to consider them within their own areas of research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)699-711
Number of pages13
JournalTrends in Cognitive Sciences
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2018


  • behavior
  • exploration
  • infant
  • locomotion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience


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