Ovarian cancer (OC) is the second most common gynecological malignancy and the fifth leading cause of death due to cancer in women in the United States mainly due to the late-stage diagnosis of this cancer. It is, therefore, critical to identify potential indicators to aid in early detection and diagnosis of this disease. We investigated the microbiome associated with OC and its potential role in detection, progression as well as prognosis of the disease. We identified a distinct OC microbiome with general enrichment of several microbial taxa, including Dialister, Corynebacterium, Prevotella, and Peptoniphilus in the OC cohort in all body sites excluding stool and omentum which were not sampled from the benign cohort. These taxa were, however, depleted in the advanced-stage and high-grade OC patients compared to early-stage and low-grade OC patients suggestive of decrease accumulation in advanced disease and could serve as potential indicators for early detection of OC. Similarly, we also observed the accumulation of these mainly pathogenic taxa in OC patients with adverse treatment outcomes compared to those without events and could also serve as potential indicators for predicting patients’ responses to treatment. These findings provide important insights into the potential use of the microbiome as indicators in (1) early detection of and screening for OC and (2) predicting patients’ response to treatment. Given the limited number of patients enrolled in the study, these results would need to be further investigated and confirmed in a larger study.
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