Succinate is a metabolite in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) which plays a central role in mitochondrial activity. Excess succinate is known to be transported out of the cytosol, where it activates a succinate receptor (SUCNR1) to enhance inflammation through macrophages in various contexts. In addition, the intracellular role of succinate beyond an intermediate metabolite and prior to its extracellular release is also important to the polarization of macrophages. However, the role of succinate in microglial cells has not been characterized. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulates the elevation of intracellular succinate levels. To reveal the function of intracellular succinate associated with LPS-stimulated inflammatory response in microglial cells, we assessed the levels of ROS, cytokine production and mitochondrial fission in the primary microglia pretreated with cell-permeable diethyl succinate mimicking increased intracellular succinate. Our results suggest that elevated intracellular succinate exerts a protective role in the primary microglia by preventing their conversion into the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype induced by LPS. This protective effect is SUCNR1-independent and mediated by reduced mitochondrial fission and cellular ROS production.
- Dynamin-related protein
- Mitochondrial fission
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Molecular Biology