Differences in risk factors among clinical types of oral candidiasis in the Women's Interagency HIV Study

Laurie A. MacPhail, Eugene Komaroff, Mario E.A.F. Alves, Mahvash Navazesh, Joan A. Phelan, Maryann Redford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and concurrence/associations of oral candidiasis types and multiple risk factors in women. Study design. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data for 577 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and 152 HIV-seronegative women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study was conducted. Pseudomembranous candidiasis (PC) and erythematous (EC) candidiasis, angular cheilitis (AC), and denture stomatitis (DS) were studied, and bivariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed. Results. Prevalences were 8% for PC, 7% for EC, 18% for DS, and 3% for AC; all except AC usually occurred alone. HIV seropositivity was associated with PC, EC, and DS, but not AC. Among HIV-seropositive women, low CD4 cell counts were associated with PC, but not with EC or DS. Heroin/methadone use was associated with PC and EC; salivary hypofunction was associated with PC; high viral load was associated with EC, and poor oral hygiene, with EC and DS. Conclusions. Risk factors varied among candidiasis types, suggesting differences in pathogenic mechanisms and usefulness as markers of HIV infection/progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-55
Number of pages11
JournalOral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • General Dentistry


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