Directional Radio Propagation Path Loss Models for Millimeter-Wave Wireless Networks in the 28-, 60-, and 73-GHz Bands

Ahmed Iyanda Sulyman, Abdulmalik Alwarafy, George R. MacCartney, Theodore S. Rappaport, Abdulhameed Alsanie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Fifth-generation (5G) cellular systems are likely to operate in the centimeter-wave (3-30 GHz) and millimeter-wave (30-300 GHz) frequency bands, where a vast amount of underutilized bandwidth exists world-wide. To assist in the research and development of these emerging wireless systems, a myriad of measurement studies have been conducted to characterize path loss in urban environments at these frequencies. The standard theoretical free space (FS) and Stanford University Interim (SUI) empirical path loss models were recently modified to fit path loss models obtained from measurements performed at 28 GHz and 38 GHz, using simple correction factors. In this paper, we provide similar correction factors for models at 60 GHz and 73 GHz. By imparting slope correction factors on the FS and SUI path loss models to closely match the close-in (CI) free space reference distance path loss models, millimeter-wave path loss can be accurately estimated (with popular models) for 5G cellular planning at 60 GHz and 73 GHz. Additionally, new millimeter-wave beam combining path loss models are provided at 28 GHz and 73 GHz by considering the simultaneous combination of signals from multiple antenna pointing directions between the transmitter and receiver that result in the strongest received power. Such directional channel models are important for future adaptive array systems at millimeter-wave frequencies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7522613
Pages (from-to)6939-6947
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2016


  • 5G cellular
  • Radio propagation
  • SUI
  • beam combining
  • close-in free space reference distance
  • millimeter-wave
  • path loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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