We use a population synthesis model that includes pebbles and gas accretion, planetary migration and a simplified chemistry scheme to study the formation of hot Jupiters. Models have been proposed that these planets can either originate beyond the snowline and then move inwards via disc migration, or form 'in situ' inside the snowline. The goal of this work is to verify which of these two scenarios is more compatible with pebble accretion, and whether we can distinguish observationally between them via the resulting planetary C/O ratios and core masses. Our results show that for Solar system composition, the C/O ratios will vary but moderately between the two populations, since a significant amount of carbon and oxygen is locked up in refractories. In this case, we find a strong correlation between the carbon and oxygen abundances and core mass. The C/O ratio variations are more pronounced in the case where we assume that all carbon and oxygen are in volatiles. On average, hot Jupiters forming 'in situ' inside the snowline will have higher C/O ratios because they accrete less water ice. However, only hot Jupiters forming in situ around stars with C/O = 0.8 can have a C/O ratio higher than unity. We finally find that even with fast pebble accretion, it is significantly easier to form hot Jupiters outside of the snowline, even if forming these 'in situ' is not impossible in the limit of the simplifying assumptions made.
- Planets and satellites: composition
- Planets and satellites: formation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Space and Planetary Science