Disparities in Visual Field Testing Frequency Among Subjects With Glaucoma

Chisom T. Madu, Ting Fang Lee, Ashley Sohn, Jiyuan Hu, Rachel Matayev, Vikram Paranjpe, Jonathan Fam, Andrew Wronka, Eleanore T. Kim, Ronald Zambrano, Gadi Wollstein, Joel S. Schuman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Prior evidence suggests racial disparities in the utilization of visual field testing (VFT) for the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucoma. In this study, we considered the effect of baseline glaucoma severity and socioeconomic disadvantage along with other potential confounders such as test reliability, ancillary tests, and glaucoma surgeries on racial disparity in the frequency of VFT. Methods: The records of all subjects with a diagnosis of glaucoma who received VFT at an academic, tertiary care facility from January 2018 to December 2021 were accessed. Analysis was performed to compare VFT frequency, the total number of office visits (DoS), and the ratio of VFT frequency to DoS (VFT/DoS) across self-reported races while controlling for sex, age, socioeconomic disadvantage (Area Deprivation Index), VF reliability indicators and baseline mean deviation, optical coherence tomography frequency, and glaucoma surgeries. Results: Among the 2654 subjects (1515 White, 782 Black, and 357 Asian) included in this study, Black subjects had the worst socioeconomic status and disease severity at baseline. They also experienced a 3% lower VFT/DoS ratio compared to White subjects (P = 0.031). Asian subjects had a 5% lower VFT/DoS ratio compared to White subjects (P = 0.015). Discussion: We identified racial disparity in performing VFT in subjects with glaucoma even when multiple confounders were considered. Further investigation is necessary to identify other race-associated factors to work toward reducing racial disparities in VFT. Translational Relevance: Black and Asian subjects with glaucoma receive fewer VFT per visit compared to White subjects even when considering socioeconomic disadvantage and disease severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2
JournalTranslational Vision Science and Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2024


  • diagnostic testing
  • glaucoma
  • health equity
  • racial disparity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology
  • Biomedical Engineering


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