Diverse demands and resources among racially/ethnically diverse caregivers

Robin L. Whitney, Janice F. Bell, Tina R. Kilaberia, Benjamin M. Link, Rita B. Choula, Susan C. Reinhard, Heather M. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: The family caregiver population in the US is growing in conjunction with greater numbers of older adults with serious illness and complex care needs, and is becoming increasingly diverse. This study described and compared resources, demands, and health outcomes among diverse family caregivers by race/ethnicity. Design: This study was a cross-sectional secondary analysis of nationally representative data collected for Black/African-American, Asian American & Pacific Islander, Latino/Hispanic and non-Latino/Hispanic white caregivers (n = 2,010) in the Home Alone Revisited Study. We described available resources (e.g. income, paid help, social support) and demands (e.g. medical/nursing task performance) by racial/ethnic group. Using survey-weighted logistic regression, we examined relationships of resources and demands with caregiver outcomes (i.e. heath status; strain; depressive symptoms) by race-ethnicity controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results: Distribution of resources and demands was similar by race/ethnicity, except for higher income for non-Latino/Hispanic white caregivers. Nearly half assisted with personal care (47.5%) or medical/nursing tasks (49.7%). Higher social support and satisfaction with social relationships was associated with positive health outcomes regardless of race/ethnicity, while income was consistently associated with positive health outcomes only for non-Latino/Hispanic white caregivers. Medical/nursing task performance was significantly associated with negative health outcomes for Asian American & Pacific Islanders in multivariable models. Discussion: Many caregiving demands and tasks are similar by race/ethnicity and represent considerable investment of time, energy and care. Differences in the effects of resources and demands by race/ethnicity should be explored in future research as they may have implications for assessment and planning of culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)912-931
Number of pages20
JournalEthnicity and Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2023


  • Caregiving
  • demands
  • race/ethnic diversity
  • resources

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cultural Studies
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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