Do thermal treatments affect the mechanical behavior of porcelain-veneered zirconia? A systematic review and meta-analysis

Camila da Silva Rodrigues, Iana Lamadrid Aurélio, Marina da Rosa Kaizer, Yu Zhang, Liliana Gressler May

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objectives: A systematic review of in vitro studies was conducted to assess the effect of thermal treatments on flexural strength or critical load to failure of porcelain-veneered zirconia (PVZ). Sources: Literature searches were performed up to June 2018 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science databases, with no publication year or language limits. Data: From 393 relevant studies, 21 were selected for full-text analysis, from which 7 failed to meet the inclusion criteria. The 14 remaining papers were included in the systematic review: 8 for meta-analysis and 6 restricted to descriptive analyses. Hand searching of reference lists resulted in no additional papers. Study selection: In vitro studies using PVZ specimens testing the influence of thermal treatments on the fracture resistance to monotonic or cyclic loading. Papers evaluating cooling rate were divided into those applying fast cooling from above the porcelain glass transition temperature (T g ), or from below it. Meta-analyses were performed separately for flexural strength and critical load to failure, using random effects at a 5% significance level. Conclusions: Delaying furnace opening at a temperature below the porcelain T g is advised for PVZ restorations, in order to improve their fracture resistance. Additional information is required to confirm the apparent beneficial effect of self-glaze and repeated veneer firings on the mechanical properties of these restorations. Finally, in order to obtain conclusive and relevant evidence regarding thermal treatments and the fracture resistance of PVZs, future studies should concentrate on anatomically-correct crown specimens.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)807-817
Number of pages11
JournalDental Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2019


  • Cooling protocols
  • Glaze firings
  • Heat treatment
  • Mechanical properties
  • Porcelain-veneered zirconia
  • Repeated firings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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