Downregulation of SOX9 expression in developing entheses adjacent to intramembranous bone

Asahi Kitamura, Masahito Yamamoto, Hidetomo Hirouchi, Genji Watanabe, Shuichiro Taniguchi, Sayo Sekiya, Satoshi Ishizuka, Juhee Jeong, Kazunari Higa, Shuichiro Yamashita, Shinichi Abe

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Entheses are classified into three types: fibrocartilaginous, fibrous, and periosteal insertions. However, the mechanism behind the development of fibrous entheses and periosteal insertions remains unclear. Since both entheses are part of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), this study analyzes the TMJ entheses. Here, we show that SOX9 expression is negatively regulated during TMJ enthesis development, unlike fibrocartilage entheses which are modularly formed by SCX and SOX9 positive progenitors. The TMJ entheses was adjacent to the intramembranous bone rather than cartilage. SOX9 expression was diminished during TMJ enthesis development. To clarify the functional role of Sox9 in the development of TMJ entheses, we examined these structures in TMJ using Wnt1Cre;Sox9flox/+ reporter mice. Wnt1Cre;Sox9flox/+ mice showed enthesial deformation at the TMJ. Next, we also observed a diminished SOX9 expression area at the enthesis in contact with the clavicle’s membranous bone portion, similar to the TMJ entheses. Together, these findings reveal that the timing of SOX9 expression varies with the ossification development mode.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0301080
JournalPloS one
Issue number5 May
StatePublished - May 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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