TY - JOUR

T1 - Drawing nice projections of objects in space

AU - Bose, Prosenjit

AU - Gómez, Francisco

AU - Ramos, Pedro

AU - Toussaint, Godfried

N1 - Funding Information:
⁄ Research of the first author was supported by NSERC Grant OGP0183877. Research of the second and third authors was carried out during their visit to McGill University in 1995 and was self-supported. The fourth author was supported by NSERC Grant OGP0009293 and FCAR Grant 93-ER-0291.

PY - 1999/6

Y1 - 1999/6

N2 - Given a polygonal object (simple polygon, geometric graph, wire-frame, skeleton or more generally a set of line segments) in three-dimensional Euclidean space, we consider the problem of computing a variety of 'nice' parallel (orthographic) projections of the object. We show that given a general polygonal object consisting of n line segments in space, deciding whether it admits a crossing-free projection can be done in O(n2 log n + k) time and O(n2 + k) space, where k is the number of edge intersections of forbidden quadrilaterals (i.e., a set of directions that admits a crossing) and varies from zero to O(n4). This implies for example that, given a simple polygon in 3-space, we can determine if there exists a plane on which the projection is a simple polygon, within the same complexity. Furthermore, if such a projection does not exist, a minimum-crossing projection can be found in O(n4) time and space. We show that an object always admits a regular projection (of interest to knot theory) and that such a projection can be obtained in O(n2) time and space or in O(n3) time and linear space. A description of the set of all directions which yield regular projections can be computed in O(n3 log n + k) time, where k is the number of intersections of a set of quadratic arcs on the direction sphere and varies from O(n3) to O(n6). Finally, when the objects are polygons and trees in space, we consider monotonic projections, i.e., projections such that every path from the root of the tree to every leaf is monotonic in a common direction on the projection plane. We solve a variety of such problems. For example, given a polygonal chain P, we can determine in O(n) time if P is monotonic on the projection plane, and in O(n log n) time we can find all the viewing directions with respect to which P is monotonic. In addition, in O(n2) time, we can determine all directions with respect to which a given tree or simple polygon is monotonic.

AB - Given a polygonal object (simple polygon, geometric graph, wire-frame, skeleton or more generally a set of line segments) in three-dimensional Euclidean space, we consider the problem of computing a variety of 'nice' parallel (orthographic) projections of the object. We show that given a general polygonal object consisting of n line segments in space, deciding whether it admits a crossing-free projection can be done in O(n2 log n + k) time and O(n2 + k) space, where k is the number of edge intersections of forbidden quadrilaterals (i.e., a set of directions that admits a crossing) and varies from zero to O(n4). This implies for example that, given a simple polygon in 3-space, we can determine if there exists a plane on which the projection is a simple polygon, within the same complexity. Furthermore, if such a projection does not exist, a minimum-crossing projection can be found in O(n4) time and space. We show that an object always admits a regular projection (of interest to knot theory) and that such a projection can be obtained in O(n2) time and space or in O(n3) time and linear space. A description of the set of all directions which yield regular projections can be computed in O(n3 log n + k) time, where k is the number of intersections of a set of quadratic arcs on the direction sphere and varies from O(n3) to O(n6). Finally, when the objects are polygons and trees in space, we consider monotonic projections, i.e., projections such that every path from the root of the tree to every leaf is monotonic in a common direction on the projection plane. We solve a variety of such problems. For example, given a polygonal chain P, we can determine in O(n) time if P is monotonic on the projection plane, and in O(n log n) time we can find all the viewing directions with respect to which P is monotonic. In addition, in O(n2) time, we can determine all directions with respect to which a given tree or simple polygon is monotonic.

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U2 - 10.1006/jvci.1999.0415

DO - 10.1006/jvci.1999.0415

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0344672350

SN - 1047-3203

VL - 10

SP - 155

EP - 172

JO - Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation

JF - Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation

IS - 2

ER -