Dual reversible transformer model for the calculation of low-frequency transients

Saeed Jazebi, Francisco De Leon, Ashkan Farazmand, Digvijay Deswal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper presents a physically consistent dual model applicable to single-phase two-winding transformers for the calculation of low-frequency transients. First, the topology of a dual electrical equivalent circuit is obtained from the direct application of the principle of duality. Then, the model parameters are computed considering the variations of the transformer electromagnetic behavior under various operating conditions. Current modeling techniques use different topological models to represent diverse transient situations. The reversible model proposed in this paper unifies the terminal and topological equivalent circuits. The model remains invariable for all low-frequency transients including deep saturation conditions driven from any of the two windings. The proposed model is tested with a single-phase transformer for the calculation of magnetizing inrush currents, series ferroresonance, and geomagnetic-induced currents (GIC). The electromagnetic transient response of the model is compared to the \pi model and to laboratory measurements for validation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6555934
Pages (from-to)2509-2517
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2013


  • Electromagnetic transients
  • low-frequency transformer modeling
  • principle of duality
  • transformers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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