Duality-Derived Transformer Models for Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Transients - Part II: Complementary Modeling Guidelines

S. Jazebi, A. Rezaei-Zare, M. Lambert, S. E. Zirka, N. Chiesa, Y. I. Moroz, X. Chen, M. Martinez-Duro, C. M. Arturi, E. P. Dick, A. Narang, R. A. Walling, J. Mahseredjian, J. A. Martinez, F. De Leon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This two-part paper is intended to clarify definitions in dual transformer modeling that are vague, provide accurate modeling guidelines, clarify misconceptions about numerical instability, provide a unified dual model for a specific type of transformer, and introduce new paths of research to the power systems/electrical machinery community for low-frequency transients. Part I discussed the topology of duality-based models and some important issues, such as the most common approaches to derive dual models and their variety, the equivalence of negative inductance and mutual couplings to represent the leakage inductance of three-winding transformers, and the numerical oscillations caused by the use of nontopological models. This part of the paper discusses and compares white-, gray-, and black-box models. The paper also reviews hysteresis models (static and dynamic) and highlights the differences between the air-core inductance and saturation inductance. The available dual models for the representation of the transformer tank are then presented. A unified and accurate model of a three-phase core-type transformer adequate for all low-frequency transients is presented. Finally, concrete guidelines are presented for the appropriate selection of the model topology and parameters for different low-frequency transient studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7458170
Pages (from-to)2420-2430
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Delivery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2016


  • Duality models
  • electromagnetic transients
  • modeling guidelines
  • tank models
  • transformer modeling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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