Dynamic loading stimulates mandibular condyle remodeling

Cristina C. Teixeira, Fanar Abdullah, Mona Alikhani, Sarah Alansari, Chinapa Sangsuwon, Serafim Oliveira, Jeanne M. Nervina, Mani Alikhani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: We and others have reported that low-magnitude high-frequency dynamic loading has an osteogenic effect on alveolar bone. Since chondrocytes and osteoblasts originate from the same progenitor cells, we reasoned that dynamic loading may stimulate a similar response in chondrocytes. A stimulating effect could be beneficial for patients with damaged condylar cartilage or mandibular deficiency. Methods: Studies were conducted on growing Sprague-Dawley rats divided into three groups: control, static load, and dynamic load. The dynamic load group received a dynamic load on the lower right molars 5 minutes per day with a 0.3 g acceleration and peak strain of 30 με registered by accelerometer and strain gauge. The static load group received an equivalent magnitude of static force (30 με). The control group did not receive any treatment. Samples were collected at days 0, 28, and 56 for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis, microcomputed tomography, and histology and fluorescent microscopy analysis. Results: Our experiments showed that dynamic loading had a striking effect on condylar cartilage, increasing the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes, and promoting chondrocyte maturation. This effect was accompanied by increased endochondral bone formation resulting in lengthening of the condylar process. Conclusions: Low-magnitude, high-frequency dynamic loading can have a positive effect on condylar cartilage and endochondral bone formation in vivo. This effect has the potential to be used as a treatment for regenerating condylar cartilage and to enhance the effect of orthopedic appliances on mandibular growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)146-155
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of the World Federation of Orthodontists
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • Cell proliferation
  • Chondrogenic markers
  • Condylar growth
  • Dynamic loading
  • Endochondral bone formation
  • Osteogenic effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics


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