E-Cigarettes in Baltimore Alcohol Outlets: Geographic and Demographic Correlates of Availability

David O. Fakunle, Raimee Eck, Adam J. Milam, Roland J. Thorpe, Debra M. Furr-Holden

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is limited research on e-cigarette availability despite increased use. E-cigarette availability within Baltimore alcohol outlets was analyzed for disparities among residential neighborhoods. Data were obtained via field surveys of alcohol outlets, and then spatially merged with sociodemographic data; 18.8% of alcohol outlets had any e-cigarette availability. Regression models showed greater odds ratios for e-cigarette availability when cigarettes, cigars, or hookah paraphernalia were sold, and lower odds ratios when alcohol outlets had an on-site consumption license. Outlets with e-cigarette availability were in predominantly lower-income, nonwhite neighborhoods. It is important to assess exposure of another potentially damaging substance among perpetually disadvantaged populations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-213
Number of pages9
JournalFamily and Community Health
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2018


  • alcohol outlets
  • census tract
  • e-cigarettes
  • income
  • racial/ethnic groups

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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