Effect of enamel matrix proteins on the periodontal connective tissue-material interface after wound healing

Ronald G. Craig, S. P. Kallur, M. Inoue, P. A. Rosenberg, R. Z. LeGeros

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The periodontal ligament has the potential to regenerate a complete periodontal connective tissue attachment, starting with the deposition of cementum, on pathologically exposed root surfaces as well as several materials including titanium oxide. However, most commonly used dental materials result in a fibrous encapsulation or a chronic inflammatory response after periodontal wound healing rather than the formation of a periodontal connective tissue attachment. Recently, an extract of porcine enamel matrix (Emdogain®, EMD) has been reported inductive of cementum formation in both in vivo and in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of EMD, when applied to materials previously reported not supportive of periodontal connective tissue formation, on the periodontal connective tissue-material interface obtained with these materials in vivo. Bilateral osteotomies were performed on the mandible of a Yucatan minipig exposing the buccal root surface of four premolars. A series of four preparations were placed in each root surface that were subsequently filled with calcium hydroxide, gutta percha, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), or left unfilled. One side, in addition, received an application of EMD prior to surgical closure. A bioabsorbable surgical barrier membrane was placed over the osteotomy sites to exclude gingival connective tissue from the wound-healing environment. The mucoperiosteal flaps were then readapted and sutured in position. The animal was euthanized 10 weeks after the procedure, block sections obtained and prepared for light microscopy. Results demonstrated complete regeneration of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament in all four teeth from the EMD-treated side. Fibers from the periodontal ligament were observed to insert into a mineralized matrix consistent with cementum on all four root preparations. In contrast, massive root resorption without regeneration of alveolar bone was found on all teeth from the side not treated with EMD. The results of this pilot study suggest that the application of EMD to material surfaces that normally do not support periodontal connective tissue attachment formation can alter the type of periodontal connective tissue interface obtained with these materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-187
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2004


  • Amelogenin
  • Cementum
  • Periodontal connective tissues
  • Periodontal regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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