Effect of HAART on salivary gland function in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)

M. Navazesh, R. Mulligan, R. Karim, W. J. Mack, S. Ram, H. Seirawan, J. Greenspan, D. Greenspan, J. Phelan, M. Alves, Joan Phelan, Anthony Vernillo, Manley LaMarre, Deborah Greenspan, John S. Greenspan, Laurie A. Macphail, Roseann Mulligan, Mahvash Navazesh, Joyce Galligan, Lupe ArevaloWendy Mack, Roksana Karim, Saravanan Ram, Hazem Seirawan, Sharon Bautista-King, Claudia Vargas, Mario Alves, Stephen J. Gange, Yolanda Barron, Maryann Redford

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To determine the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on salivary gland function in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Design: Longitudinal cohort study. Subjects and methods: A total of 668 HIV positive women from the WIHS cohort with an initial and at least one follow-up oral sub-study visit contributed 5358 visits. Salivary gland function was assessed based on a dry mouth questionnaire, whole unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates, salivary gland enlargement or tenderness and lack of saliva on palpation of the major salivary glands. Main outcome measures: Changes in unstimulated and stimulated flow rates at any given visit from that of the immediate prior visit (continuous variables). The development of self-reported dry mouth (present/absent), enlargement or tenderness of salivary glands (present/absent), and absence of secretion on palpation of the salivary glands were binary outcomes (yes/no). Results: Protease Inhibitor (PI) based HAART was a significant risk factor for developing decreased unstimulated (P = 0.01) and stimulated (P = 0.0004) salivary flow rates as well as salivary gland enlargement (P = 0.006) as compared with non-PI based HAART. Conclusions: PI-based HAART therapy is a significant risk factor for developing reduced salivary flow rates and salivary gland enlargement in HIV positive patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-60
Number of pages9
JournalOral Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2009


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • HIV
  • PI based HAART
  • Salivary gland enlargement
  • Salivary gland function

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • General Dentistry


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