Effect of Obesity or Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes on Osseointegration of Dental Implants in a Miniature Swine Model: A Pilot Study

Paulo G. Coelho, Benjamin Pippenger, Nick Tovar, Sietse Jan Koopmans, Natalie M. Plana, Dana T. Graves, Steve Engebretson, Heleen M.M. van Beusekom, Paula G.F.P. Oliveira, Michel Dard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Purpose: The increasing prevalence of obesity or metabolic syndrome (O/MS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) remains a global health concern. Clinically relevant and practical translational models mimicking human characteristics of these conditions are lacking. This study aimed to demonstrate proof of concept of the induction of stable O/MS and type 2 DM in a Göttingen minipig model and validate both of these disease-adjusted Göttingen minipig models as impaired healing models for the testing of dental implants. Materials and Methods: Nine minipigs were split into 3 groups—control (normal diet), obese (cafeteria diet), and diabetic (cafeteria diet plus low-dosage streptozotocin)—followed by placement of dental implants. Inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor α C-reactive protein, and cortisol were recorded for each study group. Removal torque was measured, and histomorphometric analysis (bone-to-implant contact and bone area fraction occupancy) was performed. Results: O/MS pigs showed, on average, a 2-fold increase in plasma C-reactive protein (P <.05) and cortisol (P <.09) concentrations compared with controls; DM pigs showed, on average approximately, a 40-fold increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor α levels (P <.05) and a 2-fold increase in cortisol concentrations (P <.05) compared with controls. The impact of O/MS and DM on implants was determined. The torque to interface failure was highest in the control group (200 N-cm) and significantly lower in the O/MS (90 N-cm) and DM (60 N-cm) groups (P <.01). Bone formation around implants was significantly greater in the control group than in the O/MS and DM groups (P <.02). Conclusions: Both O/MS and DM minipigs express a human-like disease phenotype, and both presented bone-healing impairment around dental implants. Our finding of no significant difference between type 2 DM and O/MS in bone formation around implants provides evidence that further investigation of the impact of O/MS is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1677-1687
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Volume76
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology

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