Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength of resin cement to machined pure titanium

Yang Cao, Yan Yang Guo, Lei Chen, Jing Han, Hui Tong, Bao Zhang, Yu Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To investigate the effects of grit blasting, acidic or alkaline/heat treatments, and metal primer application on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to machined commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti). Materials and Methods: Titanium plates were machined and received one of the following treatments: grit-blasting (GB), or grit-blasting followed by either acidic treatment (GB/AC) or alkaline/heat treatment (GB/AH). The specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated with Rely X Ceramic Primer (RCP), Z Prime Plus (ZPP), and Alloy Primer (ALP), or without primer as the control. The pairs of titanium plates were cemented together with the Rely X Unicem cement. SBS was measured before and after thermocycling between 5°C and 55°C for 5000 cycles. Results: SEM observation showed that honeycomb-shaped pores formed on the surface of machined CP-Ti after GB/AC treatment, whereas a uniform net-like pattern formed after GB/AH treatment. In descending order, the surface roughness was GB, GB/AC, and GB/AH. The GB/AH group showed the highest SBS among all the treatments. As for primers, ALP group showed the highest SBS, while the RCP group showed the lowest. GB followed by ALP presented the highest SBS. Conclusion: A fine, uniform network structure was formed on the surface of CP-Ti following GB/AH treatment, providing an effective micromechanical interlocking mechanism for resin bonding. At the same time, after AH treatment, the -OH formed on the surface of the machined CP-Ti triggered a chemical reaction with the acid monomers in the resin adhesives, creating a chemical bond. As a result, GB/AH treatment significantly improved the bond strength relative to GB/AC treatment. In addition, ALP treatment facilitated the formation of hydrogen bonds, which further improved the chemical bond strength. Finally, the combination of the effects mentioned above resulted in the most robust bond between machined CP-Ti and the resin adhesives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)401-411
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Adhesive Dentistry
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2019


  • Bond strength
  • Metal primer
  • Pure titanium
  • Resin cement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Oral Surgery
  • Periodontics


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of different surface treatments on bond strength of resin cement to machined pure titanium'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this