We have developed an experimental model to help identify and characterize factors necessary for periodontal connective tissue attachment formation on dental implants. In this pilot study, we report the effect of autogenous periodontal cell grafts, with and without the a pplication of enamel matrix derivative (EMD), on the implant-connective tissue interface. Periodontal ligament (PDL) and gingival connective tissue (GCT) cultures were established from an adult minipig. Implants were placed in osteotomies prepared with exaggerated countersinks that served as recipient sites for autogenous cell grafts in bilateral edentulated posterior mandibular sextants. In addition, 1 side received an application of EMD before placement of the autogenous cell grafts. A bioabsorbable membrane covering the coronal portion of the implants was placed before closure. After 8 weeks, quantitative histomorphometric and qualitative light microscopic analyses revealed that the implants that received gelatin vehicle alone were surrounded by bone, whereas the implants that received GCT cell grafts were mostly surrounded by fibrous connective tissue. In contrast, implants that received PDL cells without the application of EMD demonstrated good bone contact, but strands of epithelium were observed in the implant-connective tissue interface. Implants that received PDL cells and EMD also had good bone contact but without evidence of epithelium. A cementum-like interface was not observed in any of the groups. Results of this pilot study suggest that EMD and the type of cell populations present in the implant wound-healing environment may alter the implant-connective tissue interface.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Oral Surgery