Egalitarian motives in humans

Christopher T. Dawes, James H. Fowler, Tim Johnson, Richard McElreath, Oleg Smirnov

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    Abstract

    Participants in laboratory games are often willing to alter others' incomes at a cost to themselves, and this behaviour has the effect of promoting cooperation. What motivates this action is unclear: punishment and reward aimed at promoting cooperation cannot be distinguished from attempts to produce equality. To understand costly taking and costly giving, we create an experimental game that isolates egalitarian motives. The results show that subjects reduce and augment others' incomes, at a personal cost, even when there is no cooperative behaviour to be reinforced. Furthermore, the size and frequency of income alterations are strongly influenced by inequality. Emotions towards top earners become increasingly negative as inequality increases, and those who express these emotions spend more to reduce above-average earners' incomes and to increase below-average earners' incomes. The results suggest that egalitarian motives affect income-altering behaviours, and may therefore be an important factor underlying the evolution of strong reciprocity and, hence, cooperation in humans.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)794-796
    Number of pages3
    JournalNature
    Volume446
    Issue number7137
    DOIs
    StatePublished - Apr 12 2007

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • General

    Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Egalitarian motives in humans'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this