Electro-optic tuning in composite silicon photonics based on ferroionic 2D materials

Ghada Dushaq, Solomon Serunjogi, Srinivasa R. Tamalampudi, Mahmoud Rasras

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Tunable optical materials are indispensable elements in modern optoelectronics, especially in integrated photonics circuits where precise control over the effective refractive index is essential for diverse applications. Two-dimensional materials like transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and graphene exhibit remarkable optical responses to external stimuli. However, achieving distinctive modulation across short-wave infrared (SWIR) regions while enabling precise phase control at low signal loss within a compact footprint remains an ongoing challenge. In this work, we unveil the robust electro-refractive response of multilayer ferroionic two-dimensional CuCrP2S6 (CCPS) in the near-infrared wavelength range. By integrating CCPS into silicon photonics (SiPh) microring resonators (MRR), we enhance light-matter interaction and measurement sensitivity to minute phase and absorption variations. Results show that electrically driven Cu ions can tune the effective refractive index on the order of 2.8 × 10−3 RIU (refractive index unit) while preserving extinction ratios and resonance linewidth. Notably, these devices exhibit low optical losses and excellent modulation efficiency of 0.25 V.cm with a consistent blue shift in the resonance wavelengths among all devices for either polarity of the applied voltage. These results outperform earlier findings on phase shifters based on TMDs. Furthermore, our study demonstrates distinct variations in electro-optic tuning sensitivity when comparing transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) modes, revealing a polarization-dependent response that paves the way for diverse applications in light manipulation. The combined optoelectronic and ionotronic capabilities of two-terminal CCPS devices present extensive opportunities across several domains. Their potential applications range from phased arrays and optical switching to their use in environmental sensing and metrology, optical imaging systems, and neuromorphic systems in light-sensitive artificial synapses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number92
JournalLight: Science and Applications
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


Dive into the research topics of 'Electro-optic tuning in composite silicon photonics based on ferroionic 2D materials'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this