Electrohydrodynamic-jetting (EHD-jet) 3D-printed functionally graded scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

Sanjairaj Vijayavenkataraman, Shuo Zhang, Wen Feng Lu, Jerry Ying Hsi Fuh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Biomimicry is a desirable quality of tissue engineering scaffolds. While most of the scaffolds reported in the literature contain a single pore size or porosity, the native biological tissues such as cartilage and skin have a layered architecture with zone-specific pore size and mechanical properties. Thus, there is a need for functionally graded scaffolds (FGS). EHD-jet 3D printing is a high-resolution process and a variety of polymer solutions can be processed into 3D porous scaffolds at ease, overcoming the limitations of other 3D printing methods (SLS, stereolithography, and FDM) in terms of resolution and limited material choice. In this paper, a novel proof of concept study on fabrication of porous polycaprolactone-based FGS by using EHD-jet 3D printing technology is presented. Organomorphic scaffolds, multiculture systems, interfacial tissue engineering, and in vitro cancer metastasis models are some of the futuristic applications of these polymeric FGS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1999-2011
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Materials Research
Issue number14
StatePublished - Jul 27 2018


  • 3D printing
  • E-jetting
  • PCL scaffolds
  • functionally graded scaffolds
  • gradient porosity
  • tissue engineering
  • tissue engineering scaffolds
  • variable porosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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