Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS): What Nurses Need to Know

Carol Essenmacher, Madeline Naegle, Carolyn Baird, Bridgette Vest, Rene Spielmann, Marie Smith-East, Leigh Powers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: Efforts to decrease adverse effects of tobacco use are affected by emergence of new nicotine delivery products. Advertising, product promotion, and social media promote use of these products, yet a lack of evidence regarding safety leaves nurses unprepared to counsel patients. OBJECTIVES: To critically evaluate current research, reviews of literature, expert opinion, and stakeholder policy proposals on use and safety of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). DESIGN: A targeted examination of literature generated by key stakeholders and subject matter experts was conducted using key words, modified by risk factors, and limited to the past 8 years. RESULTS: Current knowledge gaps in research literature and practice implications of the literature are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: The safety of ENDS is questionable and unclear. There are clear health risks of nicotine exposure to developing brains. Potential health risks of ENDS secondhand emissions exposure exist. Using ENDS to facilitate total tobacco cessation is not proven.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)145-152
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Psychiatric Nurses Association
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018


  • ENDS
  • e-cigarettes
  • electronic nicotine delivery systems
  • vapes
  • vaporizers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Phychiatric Mental Health


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