Electroporation of transgenic DNAs in the sea squirt Ciona

Lionel Christiaen, Eileen Wagner, Weiyang Shi, Michael Levine

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The electroporation method described here is probably the mainstay of sea squirt (Ciona) research, because the utility of transgene expression in staged embryo populations enables a wide array of biological questions to be addressed. It allows rapid identification and characterization of cis-regulatory DNA, such as tissue-specific enhancers. Electroporation of plasmids expressing fluorescent reporter genes permits live imaging and lineage tracing. Finally, structure-function relationships can be examined by expressing dominant-negative or constitutively active forms of specific proteins using appropriate cell-specific enhancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalCold Spring Harbor Protocols
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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