Electrosprayed CNTs on Electrospun PVDF-Co-HFP Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

Lijo Francis, Nidal Hilal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this investigation, the electrospraying of CNTs on an electrospun PVDF-Co-HFP membrane was carried out to fabricate robust membranes for the membrane distillation (MD) process. A CNT-modified PVDF-Co-HFP membrane was heat pressed and characterized for water contact angle, liquid entry pressure (LEP), pore size distribution, tensile strength, and surface morphology. A higher water contact angle, higher liquid entry pressure (LEP), and higher tensile strength were observed in the electrosprayed CNT-coated PVDF-Co-HFP membrane than in the pristine membrane. The MD process test was conducted at varying feed temperatures using a 3.5 wt. % simulated seawater feed solution. The CNT-modified membrane showed an enhancement in the temperature polarization coefficient (TPC) and water permeation flux up to 16% and 24.6%, respectively. Field-effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of the PVDF-Co-HFP and CNT-modified membranes were observed before and after the MD process. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of inorganic salt ions deposited on the membrane surface after the DCMD process. Permeate water quality and rejection of inorganic salt ions were quantitatively analyzed using ion chromatography (IC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The water permeation flux during the 24-h continuous DCMD operation remained constant with a >99.8% inorganic salt rejection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number4331
Issue number23
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • electrospinning
  • electrospraying
  • flux
  • nanocomposites
  • nanomaterials
  • nanostructured membrane
  • seawater desalination
  • temperature polarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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