Endocranial hyperostosis in sangiran 2, Gibraltar 1, and Shanidar 5

Susan C. Antón

    Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


    Sangiran hominid 2 (S-2), Gibraltar hominid 1 (G-1), and Shanidar hominid 5 (SH-5) exhibit previously undescribed bilateral, paramedian hyperostosis of the endocranial frontal squama that spares the frontal crest, sagittal sinus, and ectocranial surface. The hyperostosis is localized to the frontal (usually the middle third) and parietal and is consistent with a diagnosis of hyperostosis calvariae interna (HCI), inclusive of hyperostosis frontalis interna. The hyperostosis in these specimens is compared to fossil hominids from Indonesia and Europe and to modern human cases of HCI. The three cases of HCI reported here document the existence and frequency of HCI in fossil hominids and push the antiquity of the disease back to nearly 1.5 millin years. The relatively great incidence of HCI in fossil hominids adds another confounding factor to the problematical issue of the taxonomic significance of cranial vault thickness.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)111-122
    Number of pages12
    JournalAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology
    Issue number1
    StatePublished - Jan 1997


    • Homo erectus
    • ancient hyperostosis frontalis interna
    • cranial thickness
    • hyperostosis calvariae interna
    • hyperostosis cranii
    • neandertal

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Anatomy
    • Anthropology


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