Energy-Conservation Approach to Modeling PWM DC-DC Converters

Dariusz Czarkowski, Marian K. Kazimierczuk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A new systematic method is presented for including parasitic resistances and offset voltage sources of power switches into averaged dynamic large-signal, dc, and small-signal circuit models of pulse-width modulation (PWM) converters operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM). This method is based on the principle of energy conservation. The proposed approach takes into account the inductor current ripple. With zero-ripple current simplification, the presented method gives the same results as the state-space averaging method. Reflection rules are introduced and used to simplify the models. As an example, a procedure of modeling the PWM buck converter is detailed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1059-1063
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1993

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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