If energy storage units are installed and operated in a coordinated manner, they can improve efficiency of the transmission and distribution systems. This paper presents a bilevel program to optimally site and size distributed energy storage units in the distribution system and to use them for both distribution and transmission system needs. The upper level of the bilevel program represents the operating objective and constraints of the distribution system, whereas the lower level accounts for the transmission perspective. The bilevel model is solved using the duality-based approach and its performance is tested on the IEEE transmission and distribution benchmarks.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment