The incidence and prevalence of diabetes, particularly T2DM, is increasing both in the United States and worldwide. Identified risk factors, such as glucose intolerance, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, often precede and accompany the diagnosis of T2DM. Further, all are associated physiologic alterations of obesity. Obesity that has grown in epidemic proportion, because of overconsumption of calories in the presence of decreased physical activity, affects greater numbers of persons including children and adolescents. National recommendations for screening and diagnosis of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia provide a basis for early detection, treatment, and intervention that may potentially decrease related complications, and personal and economic costs of the disease. Most important is that knowledge exists about who is at risk for diabetes by weight, family history of diabetes, ethnicity, and history of gestational diabetes that allows for the development and implementation of diabetes primary prevention programs. Multiple national health surveys and databases provide important information for health care providers, systems of care, and communities that can be used to guide such prevention, early screening, and disease detection and intervention programs aimed at decreasing the burden of diabetes.
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