We review error resilience techniques for real-time video transport over unreliable networks. Topics covered include an introduction to today's protocol and network environments and their characteristics, encoder error resilience tools, decoder error concealment techniques, as well as techniques that require cooperation between encoder, decoder, and the network. We provide a review of general principles of these techniques as well as specific implementations adopted by the H.263 and MPEG-4 video coding standards. The majority of the article is devoted to the techniques developed for block-based hybrid coders using motion-compensated prediction and transform coding. A separate section covers error resilience techniques for shape coding in MPEG-4.