Observational studies in glaucoma patients can provide important evidence on treatment effects, especially for combination therapies which are often used in reality. But the success relies on the reduction of selection bias through methods such as propensity score (PS) weighting. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of five glaucoma treatments (medication, laser, non-laser surgery (NLS), laser + medication, and NLS + medication) on 1-year intraocular pressure (IOP) change. Data were collected from 90 glaucoma subjects who underwent a single laser, or NLS intervention, and/or took the same medication for at least 6 months, and had IOP measures before the treatment and 12-months after. Baseline IOP was significantly different across groups (p = 0.007) and this unbalance was successfully corrected by the PS weighting (p = 0.81). All groups showed statistically significant PS-weighted IOP reductions, with the largest reduction in NLS group (−6.78 mmHg). Baseline IOP significantly interacted with treatments (p = 0.03), and at high baseline IOP medication was less effective than other treatments. Our findings showed that the 1-year IOP reduction differed across treatment groups and was dependent on baseline IOP. The use of PS-weighted methods reduced treatment selection bias at baseline and allowed valid assessment of the treatment effect in an observational study.
ASJC Scopus subject areas