Evaluating State-Level Differences in E-cigarette and Cigarette Use among Adults in the United States between 2012 and 2014: Findings from the national adult tobacco survey

Omar El-Shahawy, Su Hyun Park, Dustin T. Duncan, Lily Lee, Kosuke Tamura, Jenni A. Shearston, Michael Weitzman, Scott E. Sherman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To examine the association between state-level tobacco control measures and current use estimates of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes, while accounting for socio-demographic correlates. Methods: Using the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 National AdultTobacco Survey (NATS), we assessed prevalence estimates of US adults' e-cigarette and cigarette current use. Four state groups were created based on the combined state-specific prevalence of both products: low cigarette/e-cigarette (n = 15), high cigarette/e-cigarette (n = 16), high cigarette/low e-cigarette (n = 11), and low cigarette/ high e-cigarette) (n = 9). To evaluate the implementation of state-level tobacco control measures, Tobacco Control Index (TCI) was calculated using the State of Tobacco Control annual reports for 2012 and 2013. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences among the four groups on socio-demographic factors and TCI. Low cigarette/e-cigarette group was used as the referent group. Results: Current use estimates of each product varied substantially by state; current e-cigarette use was highest in Oklahoma (10.3%) and lowest in Delaware (2.7%), and current cigarette use was highest in West Virginia (26.1%), and lowest in Vermont (12.6%). Compared to low cigarette/e-cigarette, all other US-state categories had significantly lower TCI scores (high cigarette/e-cigarette: adjusted Relative Risk Ratio [aRRR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60-0.61, high cigarette/low e-cigarette: aRRR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.73-0.74, and low cigarette/high e-cigarette: aRRR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.71-073). Conclusions: Enforcing existing tobacco control measures likely interacts with e-cigarette use despite being cigarette-focused. Continuing to monitor e-cigarette use is critical to establish baseline use and evaluate future e-cigarette specific federal and state-level tobacco regulatory actions while accounting for the existing tobacco control environment. Implications:This study investigates state-level current use estimates of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among US adults; and their association with four existing tobacco control measures.The overall score of these measures was negatively associated with state-level current use estimates such that states with low current e-cigarette and cigarette use had the highest mean overall score.This study assesses the potential relationship between existing state-level tobacco control measures and e-cigarette use and calls for improving the enforcement of the known-to-work tobacco control measures across all US states, while developing evidence-based regulations and interventions specific to e-cigarettes within the existing US tobacco use environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-80
Number of pages10
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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