Evaluation is a Dynamic Process: Moving Beyond Dual System Models

Jay J. van Bavel, Yi Jenny Xiao, William A. Cunningham

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Over the past few decades, dual attitude/process/system models have emerged as the dominant framework for understanding a wide range of psychological phenomena. Most of these models characterize the unconscious and conscious mind as being built from discrete processes or systems: one that is reflexive, automatic, fast, affective, associative, and primitive, and a second that is deliberative, controlled, slow, cognitive, propositional, and more uniquely human. Although these models serve as a useful heuristic for characterizing the human mind, recent developments in social and cognitive neuroscience suggest that the human evaluative system, like most of cognition, is widely distributed and highly dynamic. Integrating these advances with current attitude theories, we review how the recently proposed Iterative Reprocessing Model can account for apparent dual systems as well as discrepancies between traditional dual system models and recent research revealing the dynamic nature of evaluation. Furthermore, we describe important implications this dynamical system approach has for various social psychological domains.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)438-454
Number of pages17
JournalSocial and Personality Psychology Compass
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation is a Dynamic Process: Moving Beyond Dual System Models'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this