Ever English Learner 4-Year Graduation: Toward an Intersectional Approach

Ben Le, Kristin E. Black, Coleen Carlson, Jeremy Miciak, Lindsay Romano, David Francis, Michael J. Kieffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This brief analyzes 4-year graduation rates among students ever classified as English learners (ever-ELs) and those never classified as English learners (never-ELs) at the intersections of gender, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income. We follow two cohorts of New York City students who entered ninth grade in 2013–2014 and 2014–2015 (N = 127,931). We find substantial variations in 4-year graduation among these subgroups, with differential predicted probabilities depending on the student’s ever-EL status, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood income. These findings reveal important intersectional disparities in this diverse group of ELs—nuances that are lost when analyzing across a single social dimension and that push us to adopt an intersectional lens in quantitative research on ELs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalEducational Researcher
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • bilingual/bicultural
  • descriptive analysis
  • disparities
  • ethnicity
  • high schools
  • observational research
  • race
  • secondary data analysis
  • urban education

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education

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