Evidence for smoking cessation: Implications for gender-specific strategies

Joanne K. Singleton, Rona F. Levin, Harriet R. Feldman, Marie Truglio-Londrigan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Facilitating smoking cessation requires an evidence-based approach. The Lienhard School of Nursing Institute for Healthy Aging in the United States, whose focus is providing health information to aging baby boomers, developed an interest in studying strategies for smoking cessation in women. Approach: Studies were reviewed and critiqued related to the question: What is the relative efficacy of first-line smoking cessation interventions for women versus men in the 40- to 65-year-old age group? This article first discusses the procedure used to construct an integrative framework for finding the evidence on smoking cessation, including a literature search and refinement of the problem to be studied, and then a summary of the evidence gathered on the selected variable (gender) and interventions (counseling, pharmacotherapy nicotine replacement therapy). Findings: Evidence was found that supports the general efficacy of three first-line smoking cessation interventions: counseling, bupropion-sustained release (BSR), and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). What the evidence does not show, however, is which of these interventions may be more effective for women versus men in general or specifically in the 40- to 65-year-old age group. Recommendations: Recommendations include the development of a clinical trial and the inclusion from the outset of gender as a major variable in all future intervention studies. Implications: Practice implications include the fact that since effective treatments already exist for assisting clients to stop smoking, all health-care providers should offer an intervention that has been found effective to any client who expresses a desire to quit smoking. Further studies of efficacy are needed to develop more focused implications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)63-74
Number of pages12
JournalWorldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2005


  • Evidence-based practice
  • Smoking cessation
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Nursing


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