Evolving models of player decision making: Personas versus clones

Christoffer Holmgård, Antonios Liapis, Julian Togelius, Georgios N. Yannakakis

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


    The current paper investigates multiple approaches to modeling human decision making styles for procedural play-testing. Building on decision and persona theory we evolve game playing agents representing human decision making styles. Three kinds of agents are evolved from the same representation: procedural personas, evolved from game designer expert knowledge, clones, evolved from observations of human play and aimed at general behavioral replication, and specialized agents, also evolved from observation, but aimed at determining the maximal behavioral replication ability of the representation. These three methods are then compared on their ability to represent individual human decision makers. Comparisons are conducted using three different proposed metrics that address the problem of matching decisions at the action, tactical, and strategic levels. Results indicate that a small gallery of personas evolved from designer intuitions can capture human decision making styles equally well as clones evolved from human play-traces for the testbed game MiniDungeons.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)95-104
    Number of pages10
    JournalEntertainment Computing
    StatePublished - Jul 1 2016


    • Decision making
    • Evolutionary computation
    • Player modeling
    • Procedural content generation

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Software
    • Human-Computer Interaction


    Dive into the research topics of 'Evolving models of player decision making: Personas versus clones'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this