This study examined how Asian American parents’ experiences of racial discrimination and internalized racism were associated with domains of racial–ethnic socialization (RES). The study sample consisted of 121 Asian American parents (M= 41.79 years, range = 26–65 years). Using structural equation modeling, a path analysis was conducted to examine whether internalized racism moderated the link between experiences of racial discrimination and RES strategies. Results suggested that racial discrimination was negatively associated with internalized racism (β = −.22, p <.05), but not specific domains of RES; however, internalized racism was significantly associated with the following RES domains: becoming American (β = −.25, p <.05), minimization of race (β =.31, p <.01), cultural pluralism (β = −.41, p <.001), and promotion of equality (β = −.40, p <.001). Significant interactions between racial discrimination and internalized racism emerged, such that parents who reported high levels of racial discrimination and high levels of internalized racism were less likely to convey messages that minimized or denied racism (+1 SD; β = −.36, p <.05) and parents who reported high levels of racial discrimination and low levels of internalized racism were more likely to convey messages that minimized or denied racism (−1 SD; β =.20, p <.05). No other significant interactions emerged for other aspects of RES. The present study underscores the importance of considering internalized racism—a consequence of exposure to racial discrimination— and the role it may have on how Asian Americans convey messages of race to their children.
- Asian American
- family racial–ethnic socialization
- internalized racism
- racial discrimination
ASJC Scopus subject areas