Examining the associations of gender minority stressors with sleep health in gender minority individuals

Billy A. Caceres, Kasey B. Jackman, Joseph Belloir, Jordan Dworkin, Curtis Dolezal, Dustin T. Duncan, Walter O. Bockting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Investigate the associations of gender minority stressors (including stigma consciousness [SC] and gender-related discrimination [GRD]) with sleep health in gender minority individuals. Design: Cohort. Participants: 279 gender minority individuals. Measurements: SC and GRD were measured using the Stigma Consciousness and Everyday Discrimination scales, respectively. Sleep disturbance was assessed using the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance measure. Subjective short sleep duration (<7 hours) was assessed. We used k-means longitudinal clustering to identify minority stress clusters (including SC and GRD scores). Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of these clusters with sleep disturbance and sleep duration, respectively, adjusted for demographic characteristics. Results: Mean age was 36.9 ± 13.6 years; most were non-White (54.5%), 52.5% were transmasculine, and 22.6% were heterosexual. Mean sleep disturbance score was 17.2 ± 6.1 (range 6-30) and 52% reported short sleep duration. We identified 3 minority stress clusters. Compared to participants with low SC/low GRD, those with high SC/low GRD (B 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.64, 5.01) and high SC/high GRD (B 4.51, 95% CI = 2.63, 6.39) had worse sleep disturbance scores. Participants in the high SC/high GRD cluster were more likely to report short sleep duration relative to the low SC/low GRD cluster (adjusted odds ratios 2.17; 95% CI = 1.11-4.26). Conclusions: Participants with both high SC and high GRD had worse sleep health. Future longitudinal studies should examine factors that drive the link between gender minority stress and sleep health in gender minority individuals to inform sleep health interventions tailored for this population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)153-160
Number of pages8
JournalSleep Health
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2022


  • Sleep health
  • gender minority
  • minority stress
  • sleep duration
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology
  • Young Adult
  • Sleep
  • Sexual and Gender Minorities
  • Adult
  • Social Stigma
  • Longitudinal Studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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