Expression of forkhead box transcription factor genes Foxp1 and Foxp2 during jaw development

Jeffry M. Cesario, Asma A. Almaidhan, Juhee Jeong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Development of the face is regulated by a large number of genes that are expressed in temporally and spatially specific patterns. While significant progress has been made on characterizing the genes that operate in the oral region of the face, those regulating development of the aboral (lateral) region remain largely unknown. Recently, we discovered that transcription factors LIM homeobox (LHX) 6 and LHX8, which are key regulators of oral development, repressed the expression of the genes encoding forkhead box transcription factors, Foxp1 and Foxp2, in the oral region. To gain insights into the potential role of the Foxp genes in region-specific development of the face, we examined their expression patterns in the first pharyngeal arch (primordium for the jaw) of mouse embryos at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Foxp1 and Foxp2 were preferentially expressed in the aboral and posterior parts of the first pharyngeal arch, including the developing temporomandibular joint. Through double immunofluorescence and double fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization, we found that Foxp1 was expressed in the progenitor cells for the muscle, bone, and connective tissue. Foxp2 was expressed in subsets of bone and connective tissue progenitors but not in the myoblasts. Neither gene was expressed in the dental mesenchyme nor in the oral half of the palatal shelf undergoing extensive growth and morphogenesis. Together, we demonstrated for the first time that Foxp1 and Foxp2 are expressed during craniofacial development. Our data suggest that the Foxp genes may regulate development of the aboral and posterior regions of the jaw.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)111-119
Number of pages9
JournalGene Expression Patterns
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Craniofacial development
  • Foxp1
  • Foxp2
  • Mouse
  • Pharyngeal arch
  • Temporomandibular joint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Developmental Biology


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