Quantifying uncertainties in large-scale simulations has emerged as the central challenge facing CS&E. When the simulations require supercomputers, and uncertain parameter dimensions are large, conventional UQ methods fail. Here we address uncertainty quantification for large-scale inverse problems in a Bayesian inference framework: given data and model uncertainties, find the pdf describing parameter uncertainties. To overcome the curse of dimensionality of conventional methods, we exploit the fact that the data are typically informative about low-dimensional manifolds of parameter space to construct low rank approximations of the covariance matrix of the posterior pdf via a matrix-free randomized method. We obtain a method that scales independently of the forward problem dimension, the uncertain parameter dimension, the data dimension, and the number of cores. We apply the method to the Bayesian solution of an inverse problem in 3D global seismic wave propagation with over one million uncertain earth model parameters, 630 million wave propagation unknowns, on up to 262K cores, for which we obtain a factor of over 2000 reduction in problem dimension. This makes UQ tractable for the inverse problem.