Fa-SAT: Fault-aided SAT-based Attack on Compound Logic Locking Techniques

Nimisha Limaye, Satwik Patnaik, Ozgur Sinanoglu

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Logic locking has received significant traction as a one-stop solution to thwart attacks at an untrusted foundry, test facility, and end-user. Compound locking schemes were proposed that integrate a low corruption and a high corruption locking technique to circumvent both tailored SAT-based and structural-analysis-based attacks. In this paper, we propose Fa-SAT, a generic attack framework that builds on the existing, open-source SAT tool to attack compound locking techniques. We consider the recently proposed bilateral logic encryption (BLE [1]) and Anti-SAT [2] coupled with random logic locking [3] as case studies to showcase the efficacy of our proposed approach. Since the SAT-based attack alone cannot break these defenses, we integrate a fault-injection-based process into the SAT attack framework to successfully expose the logic added for locking and obfuscation. Our attack can circumvent these schemes' security guarantees with a 100% success across multiple trials of designs from diverse benchmark suites (ISCAS-85, MCNC, and ITC-99) synthesized with industry-standard tools for different key-sizes. Finally, we make our attack framework (as a web-interface) and associated benchmarks available to the research community.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 2021 Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE 2021
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9783981926354
StatePublished - Feb 1 2021
Event2021 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: Feb 1 2021Feb 5 2021

Publication series

NameProceedings -Design, Automation and Test in Europe, DATE
ISSN (Print)1530-1591


Conference2021 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2021
CityVirtual, Online


  • Anti-SAT
  • Bilateral logic encryption
  • Compound locking
  • Fault-injection
  • Logic locking
  • SAT-based attacks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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