Factors affecting the introduction of new vaccines to poor nations: A comparative study of the Haemophilus influenzae type B and hepatitis B vaccines

Aharona Glatman-Freedman, Mary Louise Cohen, Katherine A. Nichols, Robert F. Porges, Ivy Rayos Saludes, Kevin Steffens, Victor G. Rodwin, David W. Britt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: A major effort to introduce new vaccines into poor nations of the world was initiated in recent years with the help of the GAVI alliance. The first vaccines introduced have been the Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and the hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccines. The introduction of these vaccines during the first phase of GAVI's operations demonstrated considerable variability. We set out to study the factors affecting the introduction of these vaccines. The African Region (AFRO), where new vaccines were introduced to a substantial number of countries during the first phase of GAVI's funding, was selected for this study. Methodology/Principal Findings: GAVI-eligible AFRO countries with a population of 0.5 million or more were included in the study. Countries were analyzed and compared for new vaccine introduction, healthcare indicators, financial indicators related to healthcare and country-level Governance Indicators, using One Way ANOVA, correlation analysis and Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA). Introduction of new vaccines into AFRO nations was associated primarily with high countrylevel Governance Indicator scores. The use of individual Governance Indicator scores, as well as a combined Governance Indicator score we developed, demonstrated similar results. Conclusions/Significance: Our study results indicate that good country-level governance is an imperative pre-requisite for the successful early introduction of new vaccines into poor African nations. Enhanced support measures may be required to effectively introduce new vaccines to countries with low governance scores. The combined governance score we developed may thus constitute a useful tool for helping philanthropic organizations make decisions regarding the type of support needed by different countries to achieve success.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere13802
JournalPloS one
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2010

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General


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