Factors Associated with Family Functioning During Pregnancy by Adolescent and Young Adult Women

Jie Zhong, Yzette Lanier, Audrey Lyndon, Trace Kershaw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Pregnancy represents a stressful period for both women and their families. Whether the family maintains functioning during pregnancy could have significant implications on maternal and child health. In this study, we explored individual- and family-level factors associated with family functioning in adolescent and young adult mothers. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of 295 young mothers, ages between 15 and 21 years. Multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to estimate adjusted odds ratios of exploratory factors on the risk of being in high family functioning group. The parent study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Yale University. Results: The mean score of family functioning was 5.14 out of 7. With the inclusion of individual-level factors (Model 1), significant associations were observed between high family functioning and having ever attended religious services (OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.20-4.09), low perceived discrimination (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.60-5.75), and high perceived social support (OR = 3.74, 95% CI: 2.01-6.95). After including both individual- and family-level factors (Model 2), results identified significant associations between high family functioning and annual household income>$15,000 (OR = 9.82, 95% CI: 1.67-57.67, p = 0.011) and no experience of violence from any family members (OR = 4.94, 95% CI: 1.50-16.21, p = 0.008). Discussion: The models of care should be structured to support the continuity of maternity care in which health care providers have the opportunity to discover and utilize each family's strengths to provide the optimal caring experience for young mothers and their families as a unit.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)324-333
Number of pages10
JournalWomen's Health Reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 1 2024


  • adolescent health
  • family health
  • postpartum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Maternity and Midwifery
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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